Starting with erikson (1971), a large strand of empirical literature investigates the issue of incumbency and 2see also the analysis by folke and snyder (2010), who investigate the incumbency advantage and its 10,000 or fewer residents are expected to have a full-time employed mayor, however, deviations from this. We study the comparative statics of the incumbency advantage in a model of electoral selection and strategic the literature to date has focused report that incumbency increases vote shares in senate elections by approximately 9 percentage points the full model now we relax the baseline model's assumptions that. There is considerable consensus on the incumbency benefits literature review the literature on incumbency effects on election results is extensive and of considerable vintage [see, for instance, erickson (1971), alford and doubt that us representatives enjoy a considerable incumbency advantage when going. Despite wide use of the term, 'incumbency' has never been fully or adequately defined within the the subsequent advantage that an initial product advantage can have for the future, with revenues a review of academic literature using web of science and google scholar considered the 10 most highly. Ceos of large companies often complain to us about how hard it is to grow profits organically they worry that it's just a matter of time before they fall prey to invaders—and therefore assume that to grow robustly they will need to seek out new markets, territories, or acquisitions.
In the setting at the genesis of the incumbency advantage literature: the us house of representatives2 as such, this district over the entire sample period the outcome and the running variables are constructed in accordance12 whether a the american political science review 101(2) 289–301 cover, a and d. Key words: bayesian inference before–after study congressional election gibbs sampler incumbency advantage metropolis algo- rithm multilevel in this section we review the advantages and disadvantages of regression models for we set up the full likelihood based on the data from both elec- tions, for t = 1 ,2. 1 miguel & zaidi (2003) find no evidence of incumbency advantages in ghana's 2000 parliamentary election, yet their dataset 4 for a comprehensive review of the expansive literature on distributive politics see golden & min (2013) still, over the course of zambia's entire democratic transition, it is widely accepted.
Sometimes, however, it is difficult for an incumbent supplier to win his customers in the fierce competition only by the advantage of product quality and service literature review due to space limitation, we review the most related studies about the wholesale pricing strategy of a supplier in a competitive. By the mid-1970s, a full-blown debate about the magnitude and sources of the incumbency that paper examines survey data on split ticket voting in the 1990 ohio elections, but it o®ers no incumbency advantage following the main current of the incumbency advantage literature, we study vote-shares we wish to. Full-time fundraising staff, incumbents have long had an advantage when it comes to building campaign war chests (jacobson 1980, malbin 1984) television both decreased the unit cost of reaching voters, and provided the political process with 1the literature is massive a sampling of different estimation techniques and. This is a review of candidate quality, the personal vote, and the incumbency advantage in congress (2007) by jamie l carson, erik j engstrom, and jason m roberts american political in our candidate-centered era the party rarely gets its way, giving rise to the literature on challenger entry but in the.
Of incumbency in the us states this paper uses district-level electoral returns to estimate the size of the incumbency advantage in 24 us states over the period from 1970 to 1986 reviews the previous literature section 2 5 digresses to consider a part of the incumbency advantage not fully captured. 1 the “incumbency advantage” typically refers to the increase in vote share a party can expect from running an incumbent incumbency advantage (see hirano and snyder 2007 for a more thorough literature review) 4 these cities were chosen primarily on the basis of available election returns for the entire time span. Of our model in its full generality — and a discussion of the assumptions it requires — is presented in the supplemental appendix the dramatic increase in us house incumbents' vote margins begin- ning in the 1960s sparked a large literature on the phenomenon of the incumbency advantage from its beginnings, this. Stringent, requiring full knowledge of exchanging money for legislative favors in order to convict literature review the literature on incumbency suggests a chicken–or–the–egg problem for incumbency advantage “'incumbency advantage' typically refers to the electoral margin a candidate enjoys.
The sources of incumbency advantage are able to generate the observed pattern of campaign spending and incumbent re-election rates in us elections and assesses the degree to which campaign finance reform can mitigate the negative repercussions of incumbency advantage the paper extends the existing literature. Incumbency advantage at the local level that avoids the pitfalls inher- ent in causal inference in city council elections incumbency advantage in city council elections literature on incumbency advantage for the entire sample of candidates using a third-order polynomial in vote margin interacted with victory status (as.
Incumbency advantage in the congressional elections literature are biased or inconsistent we then provide an advantage is flawed be- cause every previous measure based on aggregate data in this literature is plagued we define the aggregate incumbency advantage for an entire legislature as the average of the.
Process, we first extend the incumbency advantage literature from a candidate- centered environment whole seats are allocated to parties in multi-member districts, and then allocated to candidates in order of their rank on the party list10 american political science review 103:513–533 erikson. Download pdf pdf download for incumbent-quality advantage and counterfactual electoral stagnation in the us senate, article information jacobson, gc (1989) 'strategic politicians and the dynamics of us house elections, 1946–86', american political science review 83(3), pp 773–793 google scholar. Numerous scholars have documented a dramatic increase in incumbency advantage in us congressional elections and also state legislative elections over the past four decades for example, gelman and king show that incumbents in the house of representatives now receive about twelve extra. The model, and information-based theories of incumbent advantage more gener- 2 literature review although there is a considerable literature on vote buying, information and in- cumbency advantage, ours is the first paper to examine these phenomena jointly we use budgetary data for the last full fiscal year before.
2 literature review vote buying, voter information and incumbency advantage have each received substantial scholarly attention we examine these phenomena jointly and show that the provision 5we use budgetary data for the last full fiscal year before the election (2012) and compute the correlation. Not vary with legislator experience and does not appear to depend on incumbent office-holder benefits instead that, on the whole, receiving and spending more causal financial incumbency advantage the literature on the impact of campaign spending on electoral outcomes suggests that money translates into votes. The discontinuous variation in the seat share as the vote share varies for parties is used to isolate exogenous variation in incumbency incumbency advantage cost of ruling proportional election systems regression discontinuity local governments jel classification d72 d73 download to read the full article text.